Preferred Sample Type

Calcium (Urine)

Suitable Specimen Types

  • Plain Spot Urine
  • 24 Hour Urine Plain
Minimum sample volume 0.5 mL

Sample Processing in Laboratory

Plain urines - Acidify urine on receipt by laboratory

Sample Preparation

24 hour urine into plain container (black label) or random spot urine suitable

Turnaround Time

7 Days

Calcium (Urine)

General Information

Urine calcium can be used to assess parathyroid disease and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH). Although not predictive of stone formation, urine calcium is frequently elevated in patients with lithiasis. The primary clinical value of urine calcium measurement is to aid in the differential diagnoses of patients and direct optimal treatment options for patients with abnormal serum calcium

Hypocalciuria is often mistakenly due to incomplete collection (a random sample thought to be an aliquot from a 24-hour specimen). Some drugs can decrease urine calcium, including thiazide diuretics, benzothiadiazide diuretics (like chlorthalidone), and estrogen. Decreased urine calcium is also seen in hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism (a lack of response to PTH rather than decreased secretion of PTH), rickets, hypothyroidism, steatorrhea, and nephrosis. Another cause of low urine calcium is familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), also known as familial benign hypercalcemia.

Any disease causing increases in serum calcium can lead to increases in urine calcium. In addition to hyperparathyroidism, other diseases include multiple myeloma (or any osteolytic neoplasm), osteoporosis, vitamin D overdose, renal tubular acidosis, hyperthyroidism, Paget's disease, and sarcoidosis. Drugs containing calcium (such as some antacids) and calcium supplements can lead to direct increases in urine calcium. The diuretic spironolactone can also cause increases in urine calcium since it is given as a calcium salt and appears to decrease tubule reabsorption of calcium. Androgens such as nandrolone and treatment with growth hormone can also cause increases in urine calcium.

Patient Preparation



Random or 24 hour collection may be assayed.

Please note, from 22/7/19 analysis performed using Abbott Alinity analyser.   The test is awaiting UKAS accreditation.


Reference Range

2.50 -7.50 mmol/24 hour


  • EQA Scheme?: Yes
  • EQA Status: NEQAS and RIQAS

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The Trust Laboratories at Heartlands Hospital, Good Hope Hospital and Solihull Hospital were awarded UKAS (United Kingdom Accreditation Service) accreditation to the internationally recognised ISO 15189 standard in May 2015. For a list of accredited tests and other information please visit the test database
Tests not appearing on this scope are either under consideration or in the process of accreditation and so currently remain outside of our scope of accreditation. However, these tests have been validated to the same high standard as accredited tests and are performed by the same trained and competent staff.

For further information contact Louise Fallon, Quality Manager, 0121 424 1235